Selasa, 17 Februari 2009

Server operating system

Some popular operating systems for servers — such as FreeBSD, Solaris, and Linux — are derived from or are similar to UNIX. UNIX was originally a minicomputer operating system, and as servers gradually replaced traditional minicomputers, UNIX was a logical and efficient choice of operating system for the servers. UNIX-based operating systems, many of which are free in both senses, are popular.
Server-oriented operating systems tend to have certain features in common that make them more suitable for the server environment, such as
• GUI not available or optional,
• ability to reconfigure and update both hardware and software to some extent without restart,
• advanced backup facilities to permit regular and frequent online backups of critical data,
• transparent data transfer between different volumes or devices,
• flexible and advanced networking capabilities,
• automation capabilities such as daemons in UNIX and services in Windows, and
• tight system security, with advanced user, resource, data, and memory protection.
Server-oriented operating systems can in many cases interact with hardware sensors to detect conditions such as overheating, processor and disk failure, and consequently alert an operator and/or take remedial measures itself.
Because servers must supply a restricted range of services to perhaps many users while a desktop computer must carry out a wide range of functions required by its user, the requirements of an operating system for a server are different from those of a desktop machine. While it is possible for an operating system to make a machine both provide services and respond quickly to the requirements of a user, it is usual to use different operating systems on servers and desktop machines. Some operating systems are supplied in both server and desktop versions with similar user interface.
The desktop versions of the Windows and Mac OS X operating systems are deployed on a minority of servers, as are some proprietary mainframe operating systems, such as z/OS. The dominant operating systems among servers are UNIX-based and open source kernel distributions.
The rise of the microprocessor-based server was facilitated by the development of Unix to run on the x86 microprocessor architecture. The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems also runs on x86 hardware, and since Windows NT have been available in versions suitable for server use.
While the role of server and desktop operating systems remains distinct, improvements in the reliability of both hardware and operating systems have blurred the distinction between the two classes. Today, many desktop and server operating systems share similar code bases, differing mostly in configuration. The shift towards web applications and middleware platforms has also lessened the demand for specialist application servers.More about this server operating system
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Jumat, 13 Februari 2009

Business Marketing Strategy Essentials

Your business marketing strategy is the single biggest factor which determines the success or failure of your business. It doesn't matter if you sell widgets from an office in your house, or run a multi-million dollar company. It is just that simple. Get it right and you prosper. Get it wrong and you go the way of many others who have failed before you. This is true on main street, and on the internet as well. No matter what you do, the proper business marketing strategy essentials remain the same, only the application of them has to adapt to the needs of your particular business. Do not confuse business marketing with simple advertising. Your business marketing strategy should affect every aspect of how you run your business. It is the heart and soul of a successful business.

BizRave Inc. is a company founded to provide you the education, resources, and support needed to understand and implement the core business marketing strategies that will help you succeed in whatever business you may manage. BizRave Inc. is run by a consultant with almost 20 years of experience as a self employed business owner. The business marketing strategies we teach and promote are designed to help you succeed by showing you how to do the things that make customers love you and become your greatest assets.

If you are dedicated to building a business that thrives upon strong relationships with your customers and employees we can help you learn a business marketing strategy that allows you to succeed beyond your expectations. No instant wealth promises ,or hype about a lifestyle that allows you to just sit back and watch the money roll in. You still have to be one who implements the strategy in your business, but we are there to help and support you as you make this journey.

One word of caution. If you are one of the majority of business owners who are too lazy, unmotivated, or otherwise not interested in growing your business by exceeding the expectations of your customers we are not for you. However, if you do want to learn how to create an ongoing mutually beneficial relationships with your customers and grow your business to levels you never thought possible we would love to have you join us!More
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A personal computer (PC) is any general-purpose computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator.
Today a PC may be a desktop computer, a laptop computer or a tablet computer. The most common operating systems are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Linux, while the most common microprocessors are x86-compatible CPUs, ARM architecture CPUs and PowerPC CPUs. Software applications for personal computers include word processing, spreadsheets, databases, games, and myriad of personal productivity and special-purpose software. Modern personal computers often have high-speed or dial-up connections to the Internet, allowing access to the World Wide Web and a wide range of other resources.
A PC may be a home computer, or may be found in an office, often connected to a local area network. The distinguishing characteristics are that the computer is primarily used, interactively, by one person at a time. This is in contrast to the batch processing or time-sharing models which allowed large expensive systems to be used by many people, usually at the same time, or large data processing systems which required a full-time staff to operate efficiently.
While early PC owners usually had to write their own programs to do anything useful with the machines, today's users have access to a wide range of commercial and non-commercial software which is easily installed.More
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About COmputer
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A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions
The first devices that resemble modern computers date to the mid-20th century (1940–1945), although the computer concept and various machines similar to computers existed earlier. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PC). Modern computers are based on tiny integrated circuits and are millions to billions of times more capable while occupying a fraction of the space. Today, simple computers may be made small enough to fit into a wristwatch and be powered from a watch battery. Personal computers, in various forms, are icons of the Information Age and are what most people think of as "a computer"; however, the most common form of computer in use today is the embedded computer. Embedded computers are small, simple devices that are used to control other devices — for example, they may be found in machines ranging from fighter aircraft to industrial robots, digital cameras, and children's toys.
The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile and distinguishes them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a certain minimum capability is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore, computers with capability and complexity ranging from that of a personal digital assistant to a supercomputer are all able to perform the same computational tasks given enough time and storage capacity.

Selasa, 03 Februari 2009


This paper deals with some problems of long-term planning in developed countries. It is suggested that planning on the industry level can best be applied in national economies that are more or less closed to foreign influences. While information on interindustry relationships can be utilized to derive a feasible pattern of production associated with a growth target in a closed economy, disappointed expectations in regard to exports and unforeseen changes in imports will give rise to discrepancies between plans and realization if the foreign sector is of importance.

Moreover, in participating in the international trade network, governments forego the use of a number of policy instruments that could be employed in a closed economy to ensure the fulfilment of plans on the national economy, industry, and firm level. Accordingly, since governments can hardly guarantee the correctness of the forecasts, and entrepreneurs look beyond national frontiers for markets, doubts arise about the desirability of government intervention since ultimately the enterprises' profits will be affected.

On the other hand, long-term planning has a useful function in the public and the semi-public sectors. It would ensure rationality and consistency in decisions on the public sector where prices do not provide a yardstick for choosing among alternative uses of resources. Further, a consicious long-term policy would be desirable in the semi-public sectors - agriculture, transport and energy — where ad hoc interventions, taken often in response to special interests, give rise to inefficiencies.

Owner-Managers and the Practice of Strategic Management

The distinction between management of operational effectiveness and strategic management has been a core belief of much management literature. Operational management is concerned with the ongoing activities of the business in relation to existing products or services and in respect of existing markets. Strategic management, in contrast, is concerned with the future success of the business and may entail major changes in the benefits to be offered customers, in organizational capacity, and in competitive posture. The application of strategic management to small firms can be seen as posing particular challenges. This can be inferred from, for example, the organizational studies of Mintzberg (1979) who has argued that the typical owner-managers of small businesses, especially entrepreneurial ones, manage in quite a different way from the methods indicated by the strategic planning literature. Such businesses are governed, it is said, using more personal and arbitrary forms of control. However useful these arguments have been to the progress of understanding small businesses in the past, the time is fast approaching (and perhaps has arrived already) when this kind of argument is becoming fruitless and sterile. In this article it is assumed we now need to understand whether and how managers in small businesses have taken up the language and practice of planning and strategic analysis, and we need to understand with what results these have been taken up. At the heart of the article is the analysis of the results of a survey of owner-managers and other managers. The article is concluded with a look at the implications of the findings.

University Dortmund, Dortmund Abstract

A key requirement for a successful facility planning and design is to become suitable for new use as well as to be adaptable for new products, technologies or capacities. The software solution “Workbench” is designed for an Information Infrastructure System for the planning of large logistics networks as well as for the network structures of the facilities in an enterprise. The “Workbench” ensures a better information flow and basis for Factory planning and enables planners without great expert planning knowledge.

Future plan key for business owners

Every business owner will leave his business eventually, either through retirement, death or a buy-out.

Still, establishing a plan for the future is a daunting task many business owners would rather not tackle. But for those who do, it can mean the difference between financial life and death for the business owner, his family and the company.

The estate planning needs of the business owner go above and beyond death to include business succession issues that have potentially lifelong consequences for the entrepreneur and his survivors.

While sole proprietors, family-owned businesses and multiperson partnerships pose slightly different challenges, experts say business succession planning is a topic that every business owner should face -- and soon -- despite the bad taste it can leave in your mouth.

"People get very emotional during the estate planning process," said Briggs Matsko, a senior financial planner and executive vice president in the Sacramento office of Lincoln Financial Advisors Corp. "Partnerships are almost like marriages. Most people don't want to rock the boat."

But Matsko said it is far better to go ahead and turn the boat upside down if that's what it takes to ensure the best possible outcome in the event of a partner's death, incapacitation or retirement.

Matsko said he tries to inject a dose of reality with his clients by asking questions such as, "If your partner dies, then do you want to be in business with his wife or children?" He follows that with, "How would you buy out your partner's spouse if he died tomorrow? Would you be forced to sell the business or work with a new partner you can't stand? What if your children don't want to take over your business? How will your family pay estate taxes in the event of your death?"

Because the questions and scenarios are virtually endless, business succession planning is critical to ensuring that business owners and their families aren't burdened with difficult decisions during a time of grief, potential lawsuits for years after the fact, and bad blood between good friends down the road.

Family unfriendly: Family-owned businesses are perhaps the most vulnerable, said Trudy Nearn, founder of Generations, a Sacramento law firm that specializes in business succession planning, because a large portion of the estate is typically tied up in the business.

Nearn recalls a client with three children who divided his business up into three equal parts in his will.

The problem arose because only one child was working in the business. The eldest son worked day and night to keep the business afloat while his siblings watched on the sidelines and collected two-thirds of the profits.

"Eventually he got so angry that he sold everything, distributed the money and went along his way," Nearn said. "So the business was lost because the distribution method forced him to be a slave to his siblings. That's probably not what the father anticipated."

With unrelated business partners, the situation is quite different. In this scenario, experts recommend drafting a "buy-sell agreement" to assure the orderly transfer of interests. Buy-sell agreements define the terms and conditions of a future sale of the partners' interests in the event of a death, disability, retirement or other circumstance.

"Buy-sell agreements restrict who can be a partner in the business," said Timothy Murphy, principal of Estate Planning Counselors of Northern California Inc. in Sacramento. "Without an agreement, one of the partners' spouses could come in and pollute the office environment and risk the integrity of the business."

Death, taxes and insurance: Tax planning goes hand in hand with business succession planning, because if the Internal Revenue Service forces a sale of the business to pay estate taxes then succession is no longer an issue.

"The IRS has to be paid in full within nine months," Nearn said. "Some people think they can pay the taxes with life insurance proceeds, but life insurance is also subject to estate tax. Only a life insurance trust allows your survivors to use 100 percent of the proceeds to pay estate taxes."

Matsko of Lincoln Financial recommends business partners take out life insurance policies on one another so that in the event of a death, the surviving partner can buy out the deceased's family.

Although insurance can drain some cash flow out of the business to pay premiums in the short term, it can save millions in the long term.

"Insurance is a great way to leverage dollars," Matsko said. "You can have a dollar for three cents and avoid liquidating business assets if a partner dies."

Selling the farm: Of course, death is not the only exit strategy. Some business owners choose to sell the business and retire while they can still enjoy the fruits of their labors.